"The states that rebelled and took the lives of so many must never again be the equal of the states that remained loyal to the country we hold dear."
-- Inaugural address of President Lafayette Foster (April 17, 1865)
This crazy scenario isn't mine. It's by Steve Tally in his book Almost America, which has several different AH scenarios. This one is called "The Assassination of the Vice President", where George Atzerodt goes through his mission to murder Andrew Johnson. The impossible insanity that ensues charmed me into mapping this.
Reconstruction takes a decidedly more extreme bent under President Foster and his Radical Republican allies. The Confederate leadership, civilian and military, gets tried for treason and sent to the gallows. The Wade-Davis Bill is implemented, disenfranchising the South for a generation. Finally -- and here's where things get ASB insane -- the Foster Administration decides to break up the 'old states'.
Lemme quote how Steve Tally puts it: "Most of Virginia was given over to Maryland, making that new and formerly small state one of the largest east of the Appalachian mountains. Other portions were given to West Virginia. Portions of Arkhansas were given to Missouri. Portions of Texas were given to Colorado. Tennessee was completely absorbed by Kentucky. The remaining Confederate states were divided along entirely new lines, both to divide the loyalties of the "old states" and to benefit the Republican Party wherever possible. These new states were made territories that had not yet been admitted to the Union."
This goes badly, as you might guess.
Most of the former Confederacy spends thirty years under "a severe military dictatorship", with small-scale rebellions and terrorism commonplace. The army has to be kept at wartime size for that period, just to keep a lid on things. Reconstruction doesn't end until 1914. Given the "Destroy the South" mentality of the time, I figured West Virginia might be looking into a name change, especially since there was no more Virginia to be west of. Not pictured is Alaska, which is still a territory at this point. As for Hawaii, let's say it's... British ITTL.